In 1969, NASA not only went to the moon, but broadcast the whole thing live on TV.
How did they achieve the TV broadcast? What technology did they need to use to send a video and audio signal from the moon to earth? Was there much of a lag?
Apollo 11 mission had two modules
Direct telecast from the Command service module is not possible but CSM stored the recording of conversation which is transmitted by LM (which occur once in a rotation because the LM is stationary while CSM is orbiting the moon) then CSM sents to earth..
In this image you can see the high gain antennas which are used in transmission of live data
This is the actual camera used in Apollo
NASA states as
location of receiver in earth
Bottom line is, the video was transmitted to one of the large dishes that the DSN uses, and then re-broadcast to the world using standard worldwide broadcasting methods. Specifically, a format was used called slow scan, which according to Wikipedia:
The slow-scan signal mentioned in the other replies had to be converted to broadcast video. This was done by playing back (pdf) the slow-scan video on a kinescope, and reading the image with a broadcast TV camera. The setup also involved a magnetic video disc recorder which briefly stored each frame of video (so that one recorded frame could be used to fill 3 frames of broadcast video).
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