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What software language was used to program the martian rovers Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity?

Also, how many engineers were involved in writing the software for the rovers?

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As always on these kinds of questions the software process is more important than the language. NASA has decades of experience setting arranging for very low defect rates. – dmckee Feb 18 '14 at 17:42
good question ... – ReNiSh A R Feb 20 '14 at 6:37
up vote 15 down vote accepted

Almost all in C on the rover computer. On MSL, some of the C was generated automatically using UML state charts. I don't know the exact team sizes. On the order of 20 on MER and 40 on MSL for the flight software on the rover computer. You would also need to consider the software on the instruments. And the radio. And the motor controllers.

Here's a good video on the MSL software development.

Lots of good stuff in the answers to this question.

Many different languages are used in the ground software.

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Thanks Mark for the link and the video! Very helpful! – Flea Feb 15 '14 at 20:54

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