# All Questions

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### Which CI/CD system do/would space companies like SpaceX use for continuous integration in their devops practice?

I wonder whether there are, or are recognizable in near future, industry specifics for CI/CD solutions (continuous integration) in a space engineering company like SpaceX, compared to other companies ...
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### What was back-up plan in case of Apollo CSM Primary Guidance System IMU went to gimbal lock?

In Apollo-11, during preparations for docking with Command and Service Module in lunar orbit, Armstrong and Aldrin managed to put Lunar Module Primary Guidance System Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) ...
38 views

### Did any of the Space Shuttles land through rain or rainclouds?

My web research resulted in figuring out that launching Space Shuttles in rain, apart from lightning, wind and turbulence related problems, wasn't permitted due to: brittleness of the heat shield ...
6 views

### To what extent will JAXA and NASA coordinate their studies of material returned from Ryugu and Bennu by Hyabusa2 and OSIRIS-Rex?

Livescience.com's Your RNA May Have Come from Space, Meteor Study Suggests is mostly about the chemical analysis of the insides of meteorites recovered on Earth reported in PNAS, but one paragraph is ...
59 views

### Reactionless Electrodynamic Propulsion in LEO

Put simply, the earth has a large magnetic field ranging in intensity between .25 and .65 Gauss. Would it not be possible to use the earth's magnetic field as a stator and electromagnets within a ...
155 views

### Would it be possible to send a nuclear bomb to Europa and make a hole in the ice of more than 11 km?

The idea is to carry an atomic bomb in an orbiter and throw it towards the surface, would it be plausible?
66 views

### What is the reason behind the chromatic aberration on this DISCOVR picture?

Earlier in a question on this website, I saw the following picture: If you look to the right side of the moon, you will see a massive yellow transparent area. I am wondering what caused the yellow, ...
39 views

### Relationship between scaling up rocket, adding more engines and pressure inside tanks, feedlines

So can anybody say, what is relationship between scaling up rocket ( more payload to orbit ) adding more engines and pressure inside rocket tanks, feedlines. What is standard pressure inside F9R 1st ...
2k views

### What is the largest piece of space debris volumetrically?

What is the largest piece of space debris currently in Earth orbit by volume? Space debris is not limited to defunct satellites, but also includes things like spent upper stages. Bonus points for ...
30 views

### Is the retrograde (clockwise) rotation rate of Venus speeding up or slowing down?

In the update of the question "Would it be possible to "ride the wave" on Venus ?" there are links to articles in Science and in Science News that report that the atmosphere of Venus, hitting the ...
589 views

### How did LM circuit breakers operate? (famous engine arm CB broken by Aldrin)

From Apollo Lunar Surface Journal: "112:56:28 Aldrin: Houston, Tranquility. Do you have a way of showing the configuration of the engine arm circuit breaker? Over. (Pause) The reason I'm asking is ...
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### Solutions for transporting water to space

If water is the cheapest, and most usable radiation shield material for human space travel, how do we get large amounts of it to orbit?
75 views

### Zonal vs Tesseral part of geopotential?

So I've only recent started to try to wrap my brain around geopotential models. I've done work with some special perturbations using $J_2$ before, however I've never dealt with a full spherical ...
4k views

### Why is SpaceX not also working on a smaller version of Starship?

SpaceX is planning to retire Falcon 9, which would leave it with only Starship. While a Starship launch is expected to be cheaper than a Falcon 9 one, a downscaled Starship launch would be cheaper ...
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### Is TEMPO firmly planned to be launched?

The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring POllution (TEMPO) instrument (see Smithsonian Institute, EO Portal, or WMO Oscar) is supposed to measure air pollution over North America from a geostationary ...
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### This Error is coming “cannot connect to Target please select connect under reset mode from Target-> setting” [on hold]

I am currently working on Stm32 ST-Link utility Software(Used for loading program to Microcontroller) According to this error when i'm going Target->Setting->Reset Mode , the new error is coming "if ...
547 views

### What is the fate of SLA fairings jettisoned from lunar mission spacecrafts?

After TLI burn, just before Transposition, Docking and Extraction, the later design crafts jettisoned 4 pieces of the SLA fairing/shroud. These 4 pieces supposedly would follow similar path as the CSM/...
1k views

### Does trajectory of an object orbiting a planet depend on the object's mass? (With hypothetical Apollo example)

For example (hypothetically), if an Apollo crew of one of the lunar missions went on EVA just after Trans Earth Injection burn and carefully released a small bolt, or a plastic package from their food,...
47 views

### Earth Rotational Vector and Orbital Inclination

I'm doing a project regarding orbital launches and i'm kinda confused about how to calculate orbital inclination from launch sites. I've simplified my model so I can ignore fuel and the rocket ...
56 views

### Are Longjiang 1 and 2 the only spacecraft to image the far side of the Moon in a single frame with detail?

The image below, found in Was this the first-ever photo of a full moon very close to lunar new year? (and used here also) where it was credited to New photo of Lunar farside and Earth was taken by the ...
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### Meteor velocity as a function of altitude (studying hypersonic compressible effects) [on hold]

Is there any information (either an existing table, or a formula) that shows approximate meteor velocity as function of altitude? (studying hypersonic compressible effects)
101 views

### How did Conrad let Bean drive Apollo 12? Did anyone get in trouble?

In the NPR News item and podcast It's Been 50 Years Since Apollo 12 Landed On The Moon reporter Geoff Brumfiel says: The trip back went smoothly. Conrad let Bean drive the spaceship a little bit, ...
81 views

### How often did Apollo astronauts wear red helmets?

Images of NAsA astronaut David R. Scott performing a spacewalk during Apollo 9 show a red helmet. When did NASA's use of red-colored helmets begin, and when did it end, and was there a special name ...
38 views

### Would a vantablack coating on the starlink satellites cause overheating problems? [duplicate]

I'm an amateur astronomer and have recently being hearing space x catching alot of flack for the amount of reflection the satellites would cause. While I believe that program is more important than my ...
137 views

### SpaceX's Starlink and astronomy

I was reading articles about Starlink and some concerned astronomers that SpaceX Starlink will lead to more space junk and eventually the death of ground based astronomy. I am just wondering how ...
2k views

### Will Curiosity and the Mars 2020 rover be able to communicate with each other via a Mars orbiter?

Curiosity's UHF antenna on sol 2439 Could Curiosity and the Mars 2020 rover communicate with each other via the MRO orbiter ? And would it have advantages ? (Like: " I just saw a meteorite, and it'...
39 views

### Are there any active or recent projects investigating skyhooks for orbital lift?

On the Wikipedia page for skyhooks, the most recent entry in "History" describes a 2001 effort by the Boeing Phantom Works to draft a proposal for a skyhook system for NASA under the name of HASTOL. ...
86 views

### Do astronauts on the ISS refer to themselves as standing?

When on the CEVIS,(Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation Stabilization) I'm assuming the astronauts would say they are sitting. When they secure their feet under a blue IVA rail do they say they ...
1k views

### What antenna is this in an Apollo 15 LM photo?

The video Apollo 15 landing from PDI to Touchdown (found in Why did the Apollo 15 LM violently shake & raise dust after the contact probes touched the lunar surface?) seems to pan across a still ...
246 views

### Door to vacuum on the ISS

Provided I had superhuman strength and the ability to open a door even with one atmosphere working against me, are there any singular doors or windows on the ISS which I could open directly to vacuum? ...
145 views

### At a height of 100 km, what speed do you need to be going to escape Earth's gravity?

I understand that the escape velocity of Earth is 11 km/s. However, Earth's gravitational sphere of influence is not infinite, so it is possible to go slower than that and still escape the sphere of ...
181 views

### Would ISS raise up with the help of the self-powered ion thrusters?

The solar arrays provide about 100 kW of power, so we can put the two HiPEP thusters providing 1 N (1000 mN) power combined, with the specific impulse as high as 6000–9000. Such an acceleration force ...
210 views

### What was the operational lifetime of a shuttle tile?

The statement "While some of the individual tiles on the shuttle might last 10 missions" from this excellent answer has led a questioner to make the statement "someone here at Space Stack-Exchange ...
79 views

### What was pressure and temperature of LM oxygen tanks?

After analysing comments in related question How cryogenic oxygen was heated up for CM cabin repressurization? It appears that LM had oxygen stored as either gas or supercritical fluid but not at ...
61 views

### How Can I Get GPS Signal Inside the Building [on hold]

I Get GPS Signal outside the Building ,but I want to track the Assets Inside the building. Can I get GPS signal Inside the Building ?? If Not, what is the best solution to Get GPS signal inside the ...
590 views

### How cryogenic oxygen was heated up for CM cabin repressurization?

In related question How was temperature and humidity maintained inside the Apollo mission capsules? the basic concept of conditioning Apollo mission capsules environment is described. After ...
28 views

### Shuttle main engines RS-25, material damage on parts that needed replacement/refurbishment

Since other members wrote, that my my original question here Shuttle main engines RS-25 refurbishment/material damage was too broad I modified it to asked just one thing, while the other questions I ...
104 views

### Shuttle silica ceramics black tiles

Since other members wrote, that my my original question here Shuttle silica ceramics black tiles? was too broad I modified it to asked just one thing, while the other questions I will asked later. ...
160 views

### Most fuel-efficient deorbit from geostationary

Say a spacecraft in geostationary orbit needs to be deorbited (not very common, but bear with me). How does one decide when and how long should the retrograde burns be, in order to have started with ...
131 views

### Would it be possible to Boost ISS to L1 or Lunar Orbit?

NASA and Russia plan to retire the ISS before 2030, and to launch a new lunar outpost to lunar orbit. This output could then be a gateway to future mission to Mars or the outer solar system. My ...
172 views

### Does space sickness determine when astronauts have their last meal?

During the shuttle program how long before launch would an astronaut eat? With almost 50% of astronauts experiencing space adaptation syndrome, and the possibility of vomiting, did the astronauts ...
54 views

### Shuttle main engines RS-25 refurbishment/material damage

There was some thread here on Space Stack-Exchange about RS-25 refurbishment, but I am interested now, how this refurbishment look from the point of material damage of SSME hardware. In the early ...
49 views

### Shuttle silica ceramics black tiles? [on hold]

Shuttle silica ceramics black tiles, were mostly air and so fragile that you can break, crush them with the force of your hands (quote from NASA documentary). They were usually damaged by ice in upper ...
77 views

### Shuttle RCC (reinforced carbon-carbon) panels?

Shuttle RCC panels (22 panels together) were used on shuttle wing leading edge, nose cone, 0.25-0.5 inch thick and tough like concrete. link https://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/pdf/167473main_TPS-...
45 views

### Mode during apollo landing in cross pointer

In this Question the excellent answer explains from the handbook that the cross pointer input can be either from landing radar or PGNS or AGS. My question is which mode was choosen during the final ...
134 views

### Is a Lofstrom loop realistic

Is a Lofstrom loop (also known as launch loop) realistic? The general idea behind a Lofstrom loop is a large structure intended for easier access to space, held up by active support (think rotating ...
65 views

### When might we get fourteen people in space?

The record for the number of people in space at one time is thirteen, which has been set a few different times (as discussed in this question, this other question, and this article). In order: March ...
117 views

### Static forces on a rocket engine

I am trying to understand where and how the thrust forces act in a rocket engine. I had assumed that the net thrust could be "ball-parked" as the chamber pressure multiplied by the throat area, but ...