Pretty much like the title says. Beyond a simple (one or more) retro burn into unpowered plummeting into the atmosphere, is some form of powered descent a viable method of reentry from orbit on celestial bodies that have an atmosphere, such as Earth, Mars or the moons of the gas giants? What are the limitations of such an approach?
I'm primarily thinking about starting altitudes corresponding to orbits similar to low Earth orbit and higher, including transfer orbits from elsewhere. I am not asking about landing (or simply unpowered, partial-ballistic-trajectory jettison) starting from altitudes where there still is an appreciable atmosphere.
For the purposes of this question, consider reasonably modern technology and missions profiles; missions launched perhaps around year 2000 or so and later. A historical perspective is nice, but not the main focus of this question.