This idea is essentially pointless on Mars. It would be valuable to pile at least 1m of regolith on top of a habitat for radiation shielding and I think most plans for extraterrestrial colonies propose this, but there is little point in using rocks, or trying to interlock them.
For a start it doesn't require much structural strength for a cylinder to hold up a large mass of soil. I've seen a corrugated iron culvert under at least 10m of soil and rocks, with heavy trucks driving over it. It looked way too flimsy, but a cylindrical void is intrinsically quite stable.
Furthermore on Mars the habitat could support a large mass of soil from air pressure alone, 1atm of air pressure would support about 5m of Martian regolith. Piling a bunch of regolith on top might even improve stability by equalizing pressure on both sides of the shell. See this answer to learn more about how much rock air pressure can support.
So unfortunately for the idea of an interlocking rock structure, unless it's at least 5m thick, it would actually get exploded by air pressure. The problem on Mars is primarily tensile strength to keep the air in. If the habitat's membrane/shell has sufficient tensile strength, then once pressurized it also has ample structural strength to support a great weight of loose rock/regolith - up to 5x more than required for radiation shielding. And once regolith has been piled on top and compacted it'll be intrinsically fairly stable so even if the habitat depressurizes it probably wont collapse.