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Excluding our own, which bodies have we directly (or indirectly) gathered samples from? I'm aware of these:

  • Moon: moon rocks from Apollo

  • Mars: Martian meteorites found on Earth

What else?

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There have been several sample return missions:

  • NASA mission Genesis collected samples of the solar wind
  • comet Wild 2 was visited by NASA mission Stardust
  • asteroid 25143 Itokawa was visited by JAXA spacecraft Hayabusa

2 more asteroid sample return missions are currently active: Hayabusa 2 was launched in 2014, Osiris-REX is being built.

Plans for more missions exist, including sample return from Mars moon Phobos and from Mars itself.

In addition to Mars, we've identified samples from Vesta in the form of HED meteorites. The Angrites group of meteorites are possibly from Asteroids 289 Nenetta or 3819 Robinson, or Mercury.

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  • $\begingroup$ Asteroids 289 Nenetta and 3819 Robinson are, according to Wiki, also thought to be the sources of some meteorites. One could mention that Hayabusa2 (already launched) and Osiris-REX and Fobos-Grunt are upcoming sample return missions. $\endgroup$ – LocalFluff Aug 26 '15 at 10:42
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Stars.

Almost all elements on Earth were formed in the heart of a star.

We're made from stardust.

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  • $\begingroup$ Which today is a white dwarf somewhere in the galaxy, 16 or so orbits later. Or rather two or more of them, the gasses of which nova's hit each other and collapsed once upon a time. $\endgroup$ – LocalFluff Aug 26 '15 at 14:17

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