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I am wondering how much do we lose when launching farther from Earth's equator in the context of reaching Mars? Strict metric might be latitude vs weight on mars transfer orbit for some generic rocket (like Falcon 9 or Soyuz-2 e.t.c) or something like that. I would appreciate any links to works on this topic.

I am curious about this because not many spaceports are really close to equator, and Russian ones are especially far from it...

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    $\begingroup$ The answer to your question is in the launch manuals linked from our meta: meta.space.stackexchange.com/questions/249 , specifically $C_3$ vs mass graphs. You can compare MTO mass for a given $C_3$ value that comes from your desired launch/arrival dates (porkchop plot). Please also note that there are very few rockets that can be launched from multiple sites (Zenit-3SL and Soyuz are the exceptions). $\endgroup$ – Deer Hunter Sep 24 '15 at 18:18
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For reference, the same rockets, but different launch sites, gives the following, at Earth escape velocity

You asked about Mars specifically, so let's look at a delta v table. That requires 600 m/s beyond escape velocity. According to the table, that's a small difference for either location. Thus, you can see that launching from French Guiana has a huge advantage vs Baikonur, lower latitudes give much more payload capacity, taking advantage of Earth's rotation.

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  • $\begingroup$ I am afraid that actual difference might be even higher due to orbit inclination... I.e. we need not only to escape Earth, but escape it in the right direction... $\endgroup$ – BarsMonster Sep 25 '15 at 0:55
  • $\begingroup$ Part of the difference was for a zero plane escape, which I believe is a fair play of the difference. $\endgroup$ – PearsonArtPhoto Sep 25 '15 at 1:11

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