Nikon uses angular velocity sensors (rate gyros*) for measuring the lens shake and determine the compensation to be applied (from the link you provided).
Nikon VR lenses use two angular velocity sensors, one that detects vertical movement (pitch), the other, horizontal movement (yaw), with diagonal motion handled by both sensors working together.
As angular velocity is same in earth or space for same motions, there should not be a problem in operating VR in space.
Nikon's VR lenses are in use in space (ISS) without any modifications. According to Nikon,
Nikon Corporation is pleased to announce that orders for one Nikon D3S and two Nikon D3X digital-SLR cameras, four interchangeable lenses including AF-S NIKKOR 400mm f/2.8G ED VR ... This equipment will be transported to the ISS via the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft, to be launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on June 16, 2010. ... No special improvements or modifications will be made to these products. They will be the same products available to consumers, ...
- from An Introduction to Feedback Control for Optical Systems by Keith B. Powell