Although not the incident you are referring to, an incident outside the ISS in 2013 during EVA 23 is a good reference point for your question -- where Italian astronaut Luca Parmitano had water leaking into his helmet. My answer is based primarily on information in the official NASA report regarding the incident. There is also a good summary on this site.
During this emergency, it seems there was some debate about whether or not to repressurize the airlock faster but in the end it was decided to repressurize at a normal rate -- with the two options for ending an EVA prematurely being "terminate" and "abort", they chose to "terminate", making sure to tie up any loose ends before returning. It took 31 minutes from the time they decided to return until the time they opened up the inner hatch. Parmitano took 6 minutes to get inside the outer hatch, his EVA partner Chris Cassidy took another 9 minutes, and then it took another 5 minutes until they closed the outer hatch. Repressurization began 3 minutes later and lasted 8 minutes. After that, they performed an "expedited suit doffing" (faster-than-normal removal of a spacesuit), but I cannot track down how long that is supposed to take.
It took quite a while because nobody was really sure exactly how bad the situation was becoming. Let's say they chose to abort instead of terminate, in which case I imagine both astronauts would have returned immediately to the airlock (that gets rid of 9 minutes). The 8 minutes between the time they were both in the airlock and when repressurization began was most likely spent going through checklists of protocols -- let's say we can cut that down to 1 minute in an emergency. Repressurization took 8 minutes at the nominal rate, but according to recommendations in the linked report, this could be achieved in just over 1 minute (in fact, the system is capable of doing it even faster but it would likely cause adverse health effects on the astronauts). So that reduces the 31 minutes to only 8 or 9 minutes, followed by the unknown time to doff the suit.
I suppose in certain situations just getting inside the pressurized station is good enough, in others you might only need to get the helmet off (as in the case of EVA 23), then in more dire situations you'd need to remove the entire suit or at least expose the chest.