Does any probe or lander track the temperature on Mars, and is this data published anywhere? I recall the MGS used to issue a "Martian Weather Report", but it has ceased operating.
There are a number of ways. Basically, you can either get a global record, or a record from a spacecraft. Curiosity provides us with the clearest cut version, available from its website.
Mars Climate Sounder, on MRO, shows daily maps of the temperature as recorded from MRO. That data isn't readily available, but can be found from the Planetary Data System.