Does any probe or lander track the temperature on Mars, and is this data published anywhere? I recall the MGS used to issue a "Martian Weather Report", but it has ceased operating.
There are a number of ways. Basically, you can either get a global record, or a record from a spacecraft. Curiosity provides us with the clearest cut version, available from its website.
Mars Climate Sounder, on MRO, shows daily maps of the temperature as recorded from MRO. That data isn't readily available, but can be found from the Planetary Data System.
According to AP News' And now for the weather on Mars, courtesy of new NASA lander
CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (AP) — And now for the weather on Mars: NASA’s newest lander is offering daily reports on the red planet’s frigid winter.
Starting Tuesday, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory is posting the highs and lows online, along with wind speed and atmospheric pressure from the InSight lander.
It works! Here's what it shows at the moment, the site may add new features over time. The data is of course only for InSight's landing site at Elysium Planitia.