There was an expectation that there would be some dust, however, there were a number of surprises associated with this dust. Apollo astronauts tried to remove dust using vacuums and brushes. This failed to work because the dust is electrostaticly charged, it sticks to everything. The summary of all of the mission in the NASA report quite quite interesting, namely:
The Apollo 11 crew vacuumed suits, samples and equipment in the LM*
before transferring these items to the CM* . Because the suction was
low, this was a tedious job. The vacuum used in Apollo 12 did not
remove dust from the space suits, but was used to brush dust off
sample boxes. Dust and debris in the LM impeded transfer operations
and although the gear that was transferred was filthy, very little
dust was transferred to the CM. In Apollo 14, the vacuum performed
satisfactorily and very little dust was transferred to the CM. The
cabin fan filter cleaned the atmosphere well. The vacuum and the cabin
fan used in Apollo 15 worked well. During Apollo 16, the vacuum
cleaner and cabin fans failed resulting in severe CM contamination.
This was exacerbated by a decision to postpone LM jettison. The CM
filled up with dust and rocks immediately and dust coated all the
surfaces within an hour. The Apollo 17 tunnel transfer went smoothly.
A small amount of dust was transferred to the CM; however, the
cleaning control system, combined with running the vacuum cleaner in
the LM kept the CM air clean.
The main thing that was done differently in later missions was procedures. For instance, Apollo 15 reported the following in their mission report:
“The first order of business after we got repress was to go through
the checklist and do the EVA post and try and come up with a plan on
how to handle all the dirt in the cabin. We were pretty dusty. We had
planned prior to the flight to take the jettison bags and step into
them with the suits to keep the lower portion of the suit isolated
from the rest of the cabin. Our legs from about thigh down were just
completely covered with dirt. I guess the dust brush worked fairly
well. It got most of it, but we were still pretty dirty.
Apollo 16 quotes:
The dust floor was cleaned by wetting a rag, caking the dust into mud
and picking it up in the rag; however, there was no way to remove the
dust from the Velcro on the floor. Since the Velcro does not restrain
the crew to the floor in zero gravity, it is not needed.”
And Apollo 17 quotes:
You knew you were in a very heavily infiltrated atmosphere in the LM
because of the lunar dust. I don’t know how much lunar dust previous
flights had, but I think we saved a great deal of grief by sweeping
all the dust we could find in the floor into the holes and putting our
tape covers over those holes. I think that had to help a great deal.
There was an awful lot of dust on the floor that we didn’t see.
The bottom line, each mission was incrementally better, but for the most part, it didn't cause many issues, with the exception of an episode of Hay Fever. Long term no doubt it would have caused issues, but there are plans put in motion to address this for future missions.
For reference, see Wikipedia and the NASA constellation report,
*) LM: Lunar Module; CM: Command Module