This is actually a bit tricky, and relates to one of the basic tenants of the space race. The United States made small, accurate weapons, the USSR made large, less accurate weapons. Because the USSRs weapons were larger, and therefore heavier, it required heavier missiles to launch them, and thus they have the mass to achieve orbit if required, while the US's fell short.
There is exactly 1 long range US ballistic missile that is currently operational, the Minuteman. The speed which Wikipedia lists is 7 km/s. Orbital speed is about 7.8 km/s, so the speed is very close to the minimum required to achieve orbit. Estimated payload mass is ~350-400 kg. Thus, it might be possible to get a very small payload, on the order of 200 kg, in to orbit, especially if a fourth stage was introduced to give the required ~1 km/s delta v required to obtain orbit (Including the fact that a very low orbit isn't desired typically). That would be in LEO.
It turns out that modified Peacekeeper missiles have been retrofitted for orbital missions, by the program of Minotaur, which can carry up to 1700 kg, by adding additional stages and other modifications. These are highly modified, however, the most significant component of reuse being the solid rocket motors.
For comparison, the DNEPR-1 rocket, the most commonly used Russian ICBM turned to rocket, has a payload of about 4500 kg in to LEO. It has some uses, but is still a very small payload, it could lift a very small ISS supply mission, but not much beyond that. The ISS payload is listed at only 3200 kg.