Yes, if the planet is sufficiently large we would not be able to reach orbit with our current available materials and engineering techniques / technologies, this is partial due to the tyranny of the rocket equation:
If the radius of our planet were larger, there could be a point at which an Earth escaping rocket could not be built. Let us assume that building a rocket at 96% propellant (4% rocket), currently the limit for just the Shuttle External Tank, is the practical limit for launch vehicle engineering. Let us also choose hydrogen-oxygen, the most energetic chemical propellant known and currently capable of use in a human rated rocket engine. By plugging these numbers into the rocket equation, we can transform the calculated escape velocity into its equivalent planetary radius. That radius would be about 9680 kilometers (Earth is 6670 km). If our planet was 50% larger in diameter, we would not be able to venture into space, at least using rockets for transport.
In the above quote, a greater radius is used, but the greater radius means more surface gravity, so it talks about the same thing.
Obviuosly there are other technologies that could still allow for space travel. The most simple way to increase delta-v on a rocket is staging. However, there are still practical limits for staging. One problem is thrust, The F1 is the biggest rocket engine ever built, and some studies suggest that there is a practical limit of 1.5x the size of an F1 above which engines can't be constructed. Morever you can't stack vertically forever, since the lowest stage could not support the weight of the whole stack. Adding stages radial is also limit, the sheer stress would at some point break the whole rocket apart. So while this might shift the numbers a bit, I don't think it has significant influence on the spirit of the question. It doesn't really matter wether Earth needs to be 1.5x or 2x as big, at some point we can't reach orbit anymore with what we currently have.
There are other speculative technologies - rail launchers, launch loops etc. that have been research, but those aren't technologies that are currently in use. And they have mainly been researched for application on Earth, so I would be hesistant to deem them appropriate for higher gravity / radius without researching their limits, first (there is a good possibility that the materials can't handle the incresed velocities / stresses).