There is a lot of information on the internet about NASA's Parker Solar Probe mission, including several multi-hundred page scientific reviews and in-depth studies - here's one. But could someone take a moment to explain how something could spend weeks at a time tens of millions of kilometers from the sun?
Is the closest (and final?) approach still planned to be nine solar radii from the surface? It's a swing-by in a highly elliptical orbit, but that's going to be days or weeks, not minutes.
Is it all just based on a really good insulator supporting an amazing temperature gradient, or is there something more complicated going on?
Please try to add something quantitative - numbers, simple calculations, etc. to support your answer.
above: screen shot from NASA's Solar Probe Plus Fact Sheet note: the link seems to be dead now, but there is plenty of related information available at http://solarprobe.jhuapl.edu/index.php#spacecraft
above: illustration of NASA's Parker Solar Probe from here. Sun is up - to state the obvious!