It is possible for dust and debris to travel basically anywhere in the solar system, given lots and lots of time.
The first major hurdle to this travel is that the impact needs to accelerate the debris to a speed higher than the planets escape velocity. In the case of Mars, that's a speed of about 5km/s. Any debris traveling under this speed will eventually fall back down and land on Mars. Anything higher will drift off into interplanetary space.
Once in interplanetary space, there is a set of pathways known as The Interplanetary Transport Network, which are very low-energy routes between bodies in the solar system. With a small bit more speed than the escape velocity it is possible for the debris to enter a path in this network, and eventually arrive at some other planet in the solar system. The only cost is time; it can take millions or billions of years on some routes.
In an even bigger collision, and in some gravitational slingshot scenarios, the debris can reach the sun escape velocity, and head off into interstellar space.