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Having read the Wiki page, this Space SE answer, and this link, I'm curious: Is a "coronal mass ejection" the same thing as (synonymous with) a "solar particle event"?

If not, then what is/are the difference(s)?

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The two are not the same, though they can be caused by similar phenomena.

As the Wikipedia article you cite mentions, a coronal mass ejection is an unusual release of plasma. That plasma is released into the solar wind.

What makes a solar particle event different is that the plasma, once released, is then accelerated to greater speed/energy. The particles in an SPE can penetrate the atmosphere and cause ionization: particles in a CME are less energetic, but still sufficiently powerful to distort the magnetosphere.

I believe you will find the Wikipedia article on solar particle events to be interesting: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_particle_event

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