The only poster imaging all astronauts at that time I am aware is the one created by NASA in 1967. Are there any follow ups with meanwhile 550 space travellers?
I know of no posters that show all the world's astronauts. The NASA Space Flight Awareness page has some down-loadable posters going back to the days of a crowded Shuttle Astronaut Office before the Columbia accident, and as recent as 2015. As well as the occasionally amusing ISS Expedition crew posters.