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We are lucky on Earth, the ozone layer protects us from UV-C by absorbing wavelengths below about 280nm. However, the same can not be said for in space and on places like Luna and Mars. I would imagine that generating and sustaining an artificial ozone layer would not be feasible.

What materials would provide adequate protection from UV-C, while allowing UV-B (needed for vitamin D production) to penetrate into a habitat?

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Glasses can be manufactured such that they transmits the desired parts of the UV.

Looking at the picture below (found here), together with a somewhat official definition of ultraviolet wavelength ranges:

  • UVA: 400-315 nm
  • UVB: 315-280 nm
  • UVC: 280-100 nm

enter image description here

it is clear that most ordinary glasses are mostly opaque to UVC, and start being partially transparent from UVB up.

From that same wiki page:

Ordinary glass is partially transparent to UVA but is opaque to shorter wavelengths, whereas silica or quartz glass, depending on quality, can be transparent even to vacuum UV wavelengths.

A mixture of various glass types (possibly with coatings) can thus be manufactured to allow any desired portion of UVA, UVB and UVC through.

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