The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, according to Wikipedia is ratified by any country with a chance of getting there - Article VI Makes each member country responsible for it's citizens actions.

Article VI

States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the present Treaty. The activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty. When activities are carried on in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, by an international organization, responsibility for compliance with this Treaty shall be borne both by the international organization and by the States Parties to the Treaty participating in such organization.

There are multiple opportunities, for non-citizens to ride with another nation to space.

As of 2013, has a citizen of a country who has not signed and ratified the treaty, made it to orbit?

up vote 9 down vote accepted

With some help from Wikipedia, here's a few:

Bottom line, two small former soviet nations, and Iran, who just didn't ratify it. But most of the astronauts are from countries which have ratified the treaty.

While these astronauts were citizens of non-ratifying countries, all were citizens of a ratifying country at the time of their launch (Dual citizenship).

  • I believe Ansari has American citizenship. – Erik Sep 17 '13 at 4:48
  • @Erik: Ansari apparently has dual citizenship, or so the notes on Wikipedia state – Everyone Sep 17 '13 at 5:10
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    Right, meaning she would be covered by the treaty (whatever the heck that means) via her US citizenship. As a side comment, I have no idea how someone could square dual citizenship between so completely different countries. – Erik Sep 17 '13 at 6:04
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    Dzhanibekov was a citizen of the USSR at the time of his space flights. Ansari is a US citizen, and thus is a citizen of a member nation, even if she does hold foreign citizenship as well. – aramis Sep 17 '13 at 6:48
  • So we are saying that, while some astronauts have been citizens of non-ratifying countries, all were citizens of a ratifying country at the time of their launch? – James Jenkins Sep 17 '13 at 15:15

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