The processing power in current exploration rovers like the MER's RAD6000 (20Mhz) and Curiosity's RAD750 (200Mhz) is far below anything you would find in any mobile phone today. As far as I understand this is mainly due to the radiation hardening and possibly temperature ranges.
What would happen if you used terrestrial processors and other electronic components for a rover on a lunar mission? Could you use other measures to prevent these effects (e.g. shielding)?