Spacecraft tracked by NASA's Deep Space Network rely on SPICE, a software library for observation geometry information. SPICE itself maintains a list of semi-official spacecraft (and natural body) identifiers, the NAIF Integer ID codes.
The NAIF Integer ID codes do not apply to Earth-orbiting spacecraft. Instead, the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) assigns its own identifiers. NAIF maps them as
SPICE_ID = -100000 - NORAD_ID.
Other countries may have their own internal designations, and the CCSDS is trying to standardize the methodology.
The answer to your question would be no, there is nothing like ATA1000. Instead, there are many ad hoc numbering systems aiming to consolidate.
Within SPICE, specific instruments are numbered according to the spacecraft:
NAIF instrument code = (s/c code)*(1000) - instrument number
In the linked page they cite as example the instruments of Voyager 2:
-32000 -> Instrument Scan Platform
-32001 -> ISSNA (Imaging science narrow angle camera)
-32002 -> ISSWA (Imaging science wide angle camera)
-32003 -> PPS (Photopolarimeter)
-32004 -> UVSAG (Ultraviolet Spectrometer, Airglow port)
-32005 -> UVSOCC (Ultraviolet Spectrometer, Occultation port)
-32006 -> IRIS (Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer and Radiometer)