I was fortunate enough to sit in on a talk by astronaut Rick Mastracchio this morning. Among other things, he was a flight engineer for Expedition 38/39, during which the ISS saw the arrival of the first Cygnus resupply capsule to Station.
CRS Orb-1 was originally scheduled to arrive on Station just before Christmas, and the crew was looking forward to its arrival like kids on, well, Christmas. Unfortunately, a fault developed with an ISS coolant system that necessitated a series of spacewalks, causing NASA to stand down the launch of the capsule. It eventually arrived and was grappled on January 12th.
Before these dates were decided, there was betting amongst the crew about whether the repairs or the delivery would win out in the scheduling - Rick mentioned putting a spicy chicken meal on the line (apparently a favorite).
While it's possible this was just a joke, I'd be willing to believe it. Later in the talk, Rick was asked about the food on station - he said that while it was good overall, a 9-day variety cycle across a 6 month stay started to get pretty old. I would imagine that the fresh food right after a delivery is very valuable to the crew.
This doesn't prove that cash is never used in the exchange, of course, but with the crew's basic needs provided for, this sort of wagering is probably about the only time a "money" substitute is needed. And I suspect that the prospect of winning something novel on orbit is much more fun than just putting cash on the line!