This was an interesting question to research. I did not find one definitive source, but have attempted to synthesize an answer from the list of references at the end.
There have been a number of versions of Progress with slightly different propulsion systems. AFAIK this information is correct for the latest version currently in use.
The Progress propulsion system uses as propellants nitrogen tetroxide / unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. The main engine and attitude control thrusters use the same propellant tankage. There are four propellant tanks and four helium pressurization tanks. Unused propellant can be transferred to the ISS in addition to propellants specifically carried as cargo.
The main engine provides axial thrust and its nominal thrust level is 2950 N. It is variously referred to as the S5.80 or KTDU-80 engine.
There are 28 attitude control thrusters, each with a thrust of 130 N. The attitude control thrusters are divided into several groupings:
- Two clusters of six engines each located 180 degrees apart on the forward part of the Progress service module. These thrusters have two each pointed in the forward, lateral, and tangential directions.
- Two clusters of two engines each located 180 degrees apart on the
forward part of the service module, and 90 degrees away from the
six-engine clusters. These are pointed in the lateral direction
- Four clusters of two engines each located 90 degrees apart on the
flaring aft skirt of the service module. These are pointed radially
- Four aft-firing engines on the aft face of the service module,
located 90 degrees apart, near the perimeter. These also serve as a backup to the main engine.
ISS Russian Spacecrafts (sic) [powerpoint]
Characteristics of the Soyuz attitude control system
Mir Hardware Heritage [pdf]
ISS Crew Informed of Progress Anomaly