Firstly the ISS doesn't have dedicated "escape pods". The Crew Return Vehicle was intended as one, but it was cancelled, so instead the ISS keeps enough Soyuz capsules docked to allow its occupants to escape in an emergency. This is a case of expedience, not of design from a blank sheet of paper.
That aside though, all capsules are only big enough to contain the astronauts, and no bigger. The larger you make it, the more fuel it takes to get it into orbit. It also costs more with all the heat shielding and other stuff, but that's secondary. The major cost with getting anything into orbit is the fuel to get it there, and the lighter it is, the less fuel you need. Also the capsules are designed to safely contain the astronauts during the ridiculously rough rides between Earth and space, but not for comfort when they're up there. So a capsule resembles a race car, not an RV.
All of this means that a capsule is just not going to be a comfortable place to sleep. Conversely, in the main habitation areas you have plenty of space to velcro your sleeping bag to the wall wherever is most convenient.
For your list of risks:-
- Meteor showers and other debris risks are known about days or weeks ahead, and the astronauts then do shelter in the Soyuz capsules for safety, even though it's uncomfortable.
- ISS re-entry would be known about months in advance, and simply will not happen unexpectedly (because physics).
- A leak could happen, but that's an all-hands-on-deck emergency, and there is enough reserve air to allow the occupants to don EVA suits for repairs, or if it's not fixable then they can still get to the Soyuz capsules in time. Contrary to the bad Hollywood films that most likely inform this question, even exposure to space is not immediately fatal, and they've got enough time to get there before that happens anyway. Related question for this and actual decision tree for what to do.
- Explosive decompression needs more than one atmosphere of pressure difference.
- A fire is an all-hands-on-deck emergency too, and again the crew bail for the Soyuz capsules. And when fire-fighting, as per the link above:
Crew actions should provide possible ingress into their spacecraft