The attraction by the balloon works, because it has a negative charge. It basically soaks negatively charged electrons and because of that it attracts positively charged things like the hair you rubbed it on (and by that lost the electrons to the balloon). The thing with the water is a bit more complex.
In space, you could charge something, but the astronauts would need to be charged positive aswell. This would cause the ground to discharge into the astronaut and get a shock, like an electronic fence. And even if the feet of the astronaut would touch the charged ground, not even the knees of him would feel the attraction. The electromagnetic force has a pretty short range (in fact it has infinite range, but looses its strenght by 1/r) and can be insulated from by basically anything with a charge.