If we have discovered artificial gravitational force, will we be able to create an artificial habitable planet in our solar system? E.g., if a rotating cylindrical object in space can produce artificial gravity at its perimeter, is it theoretically possible to build such an object in space and by injecting air and other ingredients (soil, water, etc ..., ) into it make it a self-sustaining, life-supporting artificial planet?
It is theoretically possible to build large artificial structures in place, including ones capable of supporting life. You wouldn't need artificial gravity if you use centripetal acceleration as you mention in your post, or if the object is massive enough it will have gravity of its own sufficient for humans.
What it would take to build structures like that are propulsion, energy and manufacturing technologies which are far, far more advanced than what we have currently. You'd have to be able to move a vast amount of material to one place, then transform it into into something else using heat or some sort of manufacturing process. Our propulsion systems are inadequate to move large objects quickly enough to use them, they are barely enough to get small probes to other planets in our solar system. We can power spacecraft for life support and to do a bit of work, not melt down an asteroid, which we don't have the technology to do anyway.
So while its certainly possible, its going to take a long time.