The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) spacecraft has observed both the 2016 and 2017 eclipses and probably every solar eclipse since it's arrived, as EPIC is always looking at the sunlit part of Earth. DSCOVR is at the Sun-Earth L₁ point, roughly 4× farther out than the Moon.
2016 (edited and zoomed in):
2017 (entire disk, straight from image browser):
You can browse photos for yourself at the EPIC browser, searching for 2017-08-21 and you'll see the so-called “Great American Eclipse” soon enough.
NASA also produced an animation at of the 2016 eclipse at:
Sun-Earth L₁ is 1.5 million km from Earth, which is farther than the Moon, which has a semi-major axis of 384,000 km.
Although it didn't seem to happen during the eclipse, during the solar eclipse or indeed any new Moon, the Moon can't be very far from the field of view of EPIC. Indeed, sometimes the Moon "photo bombs":
Not quite as far away is the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which took the following photo during the 2017 total eclipse. Note that during a solar eclipse (and any new moon) the entire disk of the Earth is sunlit as seen from the moon: