Differential thrust of a set of axially aligned engines can't provide roll control by itself; either dedicated roll-control thrusters or at least one off-center and movable engine is needed.
Rocket development literature frequently mentions differential throttle as a possibility, but it seems like it hasn't been used in practice very often.
The Surveyor lunar landers had three thrusters for landing, and used differential thrust for pitch and yaw control, but one of the thrusters was movable for roll control.
I believe Dragon 2 was designed to use differential throttle for landing control, but it may wind up not doing propulsive landings at all.
I don't know of any large launchers (apart from the N-1 as described in Josh King's answer) that rely on differential thrust for maneuvering. Attitude control during the high-Q portion of ascent needs to be fast; it may be that throttle control of big engines isn't fast enough to do the job.