There have been a few. One notable one was ASTRO-SPAS. This satellite was deployed from a space shuttle, flew independently making astronomical observations, and was retrieved on four separate missions.
For two missions it carried the primary instrument ORFEUS (Orbiting & Retrievable Far & Extreme UV Spectrometer), on STS-51 and STS-80.
For the other two missions the primary instrument was CRISTA (Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers & Telescopes for the Atmosphere), on STS-66 and STS-85.
Here is a picture of the ASTRO-SPAS being deployed on STS-66.
Here it is flying free
Link to a video of the SPAS being grappled on STS-85.
The ASTRO-SPAS is now displayed in the Deutsches Museum in Munich.
Other shuttle-deployed examples include the Wakeshield (two free flights, a third attempt remained grappled due to a failure)
and, as pointed out by uhoh, probably the all time champion, SPARTAN-201 with five free flights.
Because these satellites flew so often, they were used as generic payloads in the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator (i.e. robot arm) simulator training flows. For the sake of nostalgia, here's a cheat sheet I made when I was learning to grapple free-flying SPASes and SPARTANs.