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Historically, most launches from U.S. soil that have headed into a polar or near-polar orbit have been launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. However, in a recent article written by James Dean of Florida Today, titled "Southbound? Cape rockets may fly new path toward poles", in which the possibility of flying into a polar orbit from Florida is now considered feasible, that in the early days of the space race, launches were indeed conducted on polar trajectories from Florida:

Cape launches most often head east to send satellites on their way around the equator. Polar trajectories have been avoided since a 1960 Navy launch inadvertently dropped a Thor rocket stage on Cuba, reportedly killing a cow.

Do we have a list of these satellites, their launching vehicle, and the date of their launch? Ideally, please only cite first hand sources, not forums.

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Looking at Zarya, which lists all attempted launches and the orbits of all successful launches, there was never a successful launch from Canaveral to polar orbit. The highest inclination I saw was the Transit 2A, which had a 67 degree inclination.

It seems likely the cow killing incident was the Transit 3A, presumably which would have been launched in to a similar orbit.

Bottom line, I suspect the only remotely polar launches from Canaveral thus far have been the Transit 2A and 3A. The Transit 1A/1B were at an inclination of about 50 degrees.

I should add that I looked at each of the failed orbits to see if I could determine if they would have been a higher inclination by looking at the replacement launches, and couldn't find anything.

I suspect the article should have stated southward launches, as opposed to the normal North or Northeast launches that typically happen from Canaveral.

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