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I know the rocket temperature can go up to 3500 degree Celsius especially at the combustion chamber where it is the hottest. However I know there are cooling measures to cool the surface of the chamber and nozzle and thus they will not reach stoichiometric temperature. However how effective are these measures in reducing the heat transfer to the chamber and nozzle surface? Must the materials have a minimum melting point of above 2000 degree Celsius?

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    $\begingroup$ The material used for the inner surface should not only have a high melting point. Very good thermal conductivity is also important. Copper melts at 1084 °C but the conductivity is 400 W/(m · K). Tungsten melts at 3422 °C but the conductivity is only 170 W/(m · K). The density of tungsten is 19,25 but of copper 8,92, less than half. $\endgroup$ – Uwe Jan 5 '18 at 19:05
  • $\begingroup$ See this pages about copper used for rocket chambers: 1, 2, 3, 4. Alloys with more than 90% copper are used to get more stability than possible using pure copper. $\endgroup$ – Uwe Jan 7 '18 at 15:11

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