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The Space Shuttle had the ability to launch Centaur booster stages stored inside of the Shuttle during launch. How was this stage fueled, being fueled with cryogenic fuels?

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    $\begingroup$ But they never did actually launch a Centaur, right? First was supposed to be post Challenger? $\endgroup$ – geoffc Mar 1 '18 at 20:03
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    $\begingroup$ correct, project was cancelled before its first flight. $\endgroup$ – Hobbes Mar 1 '18 at 20:12
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It was filled through the "T-0 umbilicals" (referring to the time of disconnect).

LO2 through an umbilical on the Orbiter boattail, LH2 through one in the midbody.

enter image description here

This schematic shows the plumbing from the umbilicals to the Centaur through the CISS (Centaur Integrated Support System).

enter image description here

Source

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    $\begingroup$ Is that the same fuel port that fueled the main tank, or is that something different? Were they used for anything else? $\endgroup$ – PearsonArtPhoto Mar 1 '18 at 19:55
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    $\begingroup$ There are T-0 Umbilicals for the main tank on the boattail, but the Centaur fluid connections were unique (dedicated to Centaur). I'm adding a schematic to my answer to address this. $\endgroup$ – Organic Marble Mar 1 '18 at 20:59
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Challenger and Atlantis were modified to accommodate Shuttle-Centaur (providing ports from the exterior of the orbiter leading to the interior payload bay); the Centaur Integrated Support System (CISS) in the payload bay provided the plumbing from the orbiter to the Centaur itself.

From Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center:

The CISS provided all of the mechanical, electrical, and fluid interfaces between the Centaur and the shuttle. The CISS not only supported the Centaur during space shuttle flights, it also provided the means to control and deploy the Centaur. With the cargo bay doors open, the CISS would rotate (pivot) the Centaur up and out of the cargo bay and then release it. The CISS was designed to be reusable and returned to Earth inside the shuttle cargo bay. Both versions of Centaur with the payload/spacecraft and the CISS filled the entire cargo bay of the space shuttle. The two space shuttle orbiters designated to carry Centaur, Challenger and Atlantis, also had to be modified for Centaur.

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From the Shuttle Centaur Project Perspective:

enter image description here

so, 4 connector panels on the sides of the orbiter, for various fill and vent connections. Apparently, Challenger and Atlantis were to be modified to carry the Centaur.

Further reading

That image seems to be an annotated version of this (which doesn't show the connector panels):

Shuttle deploying Centaur

The panels aren't evident in museum photos of Atlantis. They might be behind covers though.

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    $\begingroup$ Meh, same low-res image as @Organic Marble found in a different publication $\endgroup$ – Hobbes Mar 1 '18 at 19:58
  • $\begingroup$ Damn, that would have been a cool mission. Wonder how they were going to stop the shuttle from spinning out of control, though, even smacking into the departing rocket. I mean, I can see that it's at as acute an angle as they could make it without literally flying the rocket into the cockpit, and the shuttle has some maneuverability, but still... $\endgroup$ – Lightness Races in Orbit Mar 2 '18 at 2:20
  • $\begingroup$ Actually, since they're already in space I suppose it would only have needed a relatively low thrust burn to "launch". Maybe even just decouple the thing and push it off... weak enough for the shuttle's ACS to compensate? $\endgroup$ – Lightness Races in Orbit Mar 2 '18 at 2:22
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    $\begingroup$ It was pushed out by springs and didn't ignite until well separated (that was the plan anyway) $\endgroup$ – Organic Marble Mar 2 '18 at 4:38

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