Throughout its lifetime, the Space Shuttle's external tank had severe problems with portions of its foam insulation coming apart and falling off, which NASA was never able to fix. The flying fragments of foam frequently caused damage to the orbiter's (rather fragile) heatshield, which was occasionally severe.
- STS-1: Pieces of foam (and paint, which was used on the ETs for the first two shuttle flights) were observed almost constantly streaming past the windows by the crew, and over 300 tiles were damaged severely enough to need immediate replacement (although, admittedly, that probably wasn't all from the foam shedding, as the heatshielding was also damaged by an unexpected pressure wave when the SRBs ignited).
- STS-107: One of the foam ramps on the ET detached, smashing a large hole in the RCC heatshielding panels on the leading edge of the left wing; as a result, reentry heating caused a progressive structural failure in said wing, upon which the orbiter became aerodynamically unstable and disintegrated in flight.
Given the potentially fatal results of ET foam-shedding, why didn't NASA redesign the ET to make it shedproof?
There are several ways they could have done so:
- Using a form of insulation other than spray-on foam (said foam apparently had problems with gasses trapped within it expanding and breaking it apart as the ambient atmospheric pressure dropped during ascent).
- Using a double-walled tank, with an outer structural wall, an inner set of cryogenic LH2/LOX tanks (most likely balloon tanks, to reduce weight), and the space in between filled with insulation (maybe foam, maybe not).
- Another double-walled tank, but this time with a vacuum in between the outer and inner tanks (basically a giant dewar flask), which would not only insulate the contents from the exterior but also save on weight (there would have to be some struts between the two, to support the inner tank; these would presumably have been made of a high-strength, low-thermal-conductivity material, probably some sort of strong ceramic).