# What are the louver-like structures on the sides of the Mariner 4 probe?

The COSMOS Magazine article First mission to Mars: Mariner 4’s special place in history July 14, 1965, forever changed the way we see Mars. Tim Wallace looks back at one of NASA’s greatest triumphs recounts some of the excitement that NASA scientists and engineers must have felt during:

...humanity’s first up-close encounter with the Red Planet on July 14, 1965, when the pioneering Mariner 4 spacecraft took the first detailed photographs of the Martian surface, paving the way for future missions to successfully land a probe on the ground.

Remember, this is several years before the first Moon landing!

The article shows several views of Mariner-4, and this one reminds me of an old slide projector both because of what looks to be the central lens (is that Mariner's camera?) and what looks like louvers or air vents on either side.

Question: What are the structures on either side in this image, that look like louvers or air vents? What is their function?

above x2: Cropped from image in COSMOS Magazine. "The Mariner 4 spacecraft. CREDIT: NASA / JPL"

• – Organic Marble Apr 8 '18 at 10:33
• @OrganicMarble I'm not so sure that these structures on the side of Mariner-4's are actually louvers or vents. But thanks for the link, I remember that one now :-) – uhoh Apr 8 '18 at 10:36
• Aren't they temperature control devices on both spacecraft? Just one spins and the other louvers open, to control the amount of heat rejected? – Organic Marble Apr 8 '18 at 10:39
• @OrganicMarble r.e Mariner 4 I just don't know either way yet. The large and yet flat apertures shown in your link expose the surface to almost 2π of space, whereas louvers are restrictive and have a preferred, more narrow direction of exposure to space, so they would be less effective. I want to wait until I can read further. – uhoh Apr 8 '18 at 11:44
• Lets see if we can get @prakhar to up their game with some better links etc. Their answer is right just not well supported. – Organic Marble Apr 8 '18 at 12:22

After some googling, you were indeed right it is Temperature control louvers.

More detailed labelling for mariner 5 is in this image

These louvers control temperature inside the spacecraft. It is a passive temperature control system. Spacecraft Thermal Control

Accordingly, it seems that circular thing is a thruster

Detailed labelling

Image credits : NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image source : m.caltech.edu

• Added, it seems it is a thruster – Prakhar Apr 8 '18 at 10:12
• Added image source and credits. The credit obviously belongs to NASA/JPL. Thanks for guiding. – Prakhar Apr 8 '18 at 11:34
• If you look at almost all other answers in this SE site which have images, you will see that people add links directly to the sources of each image. – uhoh Apr 8 '18 at 12:03
• @Prakhar it's actually considered passive thermal control despite the moving parts. No cooling loop. nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/… – Organic Marble Apr 8 '18 at 12:10
• @organic Yes, it indeed looked like passive to me. I was misguided by the article saying " Active Thermal control components include louvers ". I misinterpreted as the system though it was talking about components. – Prakhar Apr 8 '18 at 12:47

I just ran across the louvers in close-up view!

In the JLP video 1965: Discovery at Mars there is an excellent video The Changing Face of Mars with introductory remarks by its producer/director/writer, Blaine Baggett, Director, Office of Communication and Education, JPL, about Mariner 3 and 4 missions to Mars embedded within his Von Karman lecture.

At about 00:38:50 you can see them "moving" (could be Mariner 3 or 4):