As far as the "how does it send me data from space?" goes, the GNSS constellations that exist today broadcast a pseudorandom sequence of digits that allows a receiver to determine the exact time the satellite broadcast the signal. GNSS receivers measure the delay in the signal reception and combine this with information about the satellites' orbit to determine its position relative to the satellite. You would need a method of generating your own pseudorandom sequence that is long and unique enough to ensure there is no chance of cross-correlation (locking on signal believing it to be an incorrect time or from a different satellite).
The current GNSS constellations operate at Middle-Earth orbit (roughly 20,000 km away). Even at this distance there is enough drag from the remnants of the atmosphere to slow down the satellite, this error (called 'ephemeris error') needs to be measured and your satellite would occasionally need to have its orbit boosted.
The satellite in the photo would be far too small to broadcast a powerful enough message to be heard on Earth at MEO (keep in mind GNSS sats are roughly the size of a economy-sized car), and even at that size the received signal power on earth is around -135 dBm. You could use something smaller (a la the Iridium Constellation), and bring them in closer, but you need more units to cover the Earth at this point.