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A simple orifice and a pipe have well-documented pressure loss calculation.

But when an injector has complicated flow patterns, is it possible to break it down into simpler sections by which the pressure loss can be calculated?

Or are there procedures to estimate the injector pressure loss?

Or is empirical the only way to measure the pressure loss?

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Sutton, 4th edition, page 288 gives:

$\dot w = C_d A \sqrt {2g \rho \Delta p} $

so, trivial to arrange for $\Delta p $....but you have to get $C_d $ somehow.

Sutton gives the following chart

enter image description here

This is probably OK for estimation. Real-world it's probably first CFD and then measured experimentally.

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