Every astronaut launching on a Soyuz has a custom-made seat. The seat should prevent injuries from the very hard landing. Are there any numbers about the maximum decceleration when hitting the ground?

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    $\begingroup$ Not really my area, but there's a presentation by Dr Lee Morin on the subject here: nescacademy.nasa.gov/review/… He makes the point that it's both acceleration and duration that matter. $\endgroup$ – Bob Jacobsen Jul 21 '18 at 4:19
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the presentation. One sentence of it: "Published data indicates maximum of 12 g with 5 g typical." $\endgroup$ – Uwe Jul 21 '18 at 14:07

Landing deceleration for the TMA version is 5G. The 12G value I'm not sure of, that could be the max. value for a ballistic reentry (so would occur high in the atmosphere) - the wording is unclear.

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