Dog-leg maneuvers are nicely explained in @JakeBlocker's excellent answer. If you go there now (and hopefully come back here) you can see a diagram of a dog-leg maneuver along with a comparison to an actual dog's leg! (their
knees ankles go the same way as Boston Robotics' knees go, opposite ours).
With two large coastlines that face open oceans both East and West in two industrialized states, rockets can be launched in several directions, including polar, without the need for dog-leg maneuvers.
In fact, as @PearsonArtPhoto points out in this excellent answer the satellites of some countries orbit the Earth retrograde - the opposite direction of most satellites and the rotation of the Earth - because of a lack of East-facing coastlines.
So I'm wondering if dog-legs are mostly a thing of the past, or if there are still some dog-leg hot spots, places where dog-leg maneuvers are still used regularly? If so, where are they used most frequently?