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According to Wikipedia the Context Camera(CTX) on board of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter had already mapped 50% of Mars by Februari 2010.
Should it not have to be possible to get access to all these images in a logical way ?

Page 13 of this presentation of the Second MSL Landing Site Workshop shows a mosaic of CTX images P04_002746_1808_XI_00N002W_070226,
………. P05_003168_1825_XI_02N002W_070331 and
………. P06_003379_1827_XN_02N002W_070416

Is it possible to get these images with those identification numbers ?

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Yes, just go to https://viewer.mars.asu.edu/viewer/ctx and then enter the image ID in the Product ID field. However, note that the image IDs are slightly different from what you posted: you have to drop the part beyond W.

i.e. P05_003168_1825_XI_02N002W_070331 becomes P05_003168_1825_XI_02N002W

(The remaining part is the date when the image was taken, i.e. 31 March 2007)

Example search: https://viewer.mars.asu.edu/viewer/ctx#P=P05_003168_1825_XI_02N002W&T=2

The image viewer has also other options, for example it is possible to ask for all images taken within a range of Latitude/Longitude.

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    $\begingroup$ You're welcome! I have a feeling we will meet one day, on Mars :)) $\endgroup$ – BlueCoder Sep 8 '18 at 19:24
  • $\begingroup$ I'm still not sure if i want to live there. The MOLA map looks all right with those blue lakes and rivers, and the green fertile clay grounds, but reality….? :) $\endgroup$ – Conelisinspace Sep 9 '18 at 10:19
  • $\begingroup$ Talking about resolution, can you explain why the image on page 17 of the presentation has such a high resolution and when zooming in on the CTX images they get blurred at that magnification ? $\endgroup$ – Conelisinspace Sep 10 '18 at 12:08
  • $\begingroup$ I have compared page 17 (either on normal or max zoom) vs the max zoom on the CTX images viewer and they look similar in detail to me, although the image in the viewer seems to have a different color (and maybe different range, some parts visible in the presentation are black there). See imgur.com/a/8g1G0nZ $\endgroup$ – BlueCoder Sep 10 '18 at 15:48
  • $\begingroup$ Anyway, I would guess that the image in the viewer might be optimized (eventually with some lossy compression) for online viewing. Downloading one of the Full Image Formats (i.e. Pyramidized TIFF) should yeld maximum resolution (on par or better than the presentation). Notice that the Pyramidized TIFF has a 300mb+ size.... Given how slow is to download a 300mb file vs how fast is to see and zoom in the viewer, I think some optimiziation has been done...(see first part of the comment). $\endgroup$ – BlueCoder Sep 10 '18 at 15:54

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