To give the desired global perspective, I surveyed grand challenges identified by NASA, Roscosmos, and ESA.
1. Human presence in space
All three identified areas of growth in terms of human missions. NASA listed "Expand human presence in space" as their number one theme for space technology grand challenges in 2010. Challenges included economical space access, space health and medicine, telepresence, and space colonization.
Roscosmos space strategy for 2010 and beyond included a new generation manned spacecraft for LEO and moon missions, a manned mission to Mars, and a new generation of manned space station for LEO. Manned space flight was assigned the lion's share of the budget, including a goal of manned lunar missions.
ESA Space 4.0 Strategy included "Exploitation of human-tended infrastructures" in LEO and "Extending human presence to the Moon and Mars" as two of the their three common mission goals.
Some common focus areas: commercialization of space, mitigation of the impact of space on human health, and the creation of self-sustaining human environments.
2. Unmanned deep space missions
Another thing in common with all was a focus on deep space. NASA's grand challenges of a space way station, efficient in-space transportation, high-mass planetary surface access, all access mobility, and surviving extreme space environments all serve as enablers to further unmanned deep space exploration.
Roscosmos initially planned to send probes to a whole host of deep space destinations, but following a launch fiasco, revised plans to focus on unmanned lunar missions, with other deep space missions getting postponed. Missions to Mars and Venus are still eyed for the 2020s and 2030s, however.
ESA's other common mission goal (besides the two mentioned above in section 1) is "Returning samples from the Moon and Mars". Notably, this is a goal of NASA and Roscomos deep space exploration as well.
Some common focus areas: gateway stations, lander resiliency, deep-space telescopes, asteroid exploration, and of course Moon and Mars missions
To wrap this back into overall challenges, what has been identified here is that the top focus will be on reducing cost of launch, supporting long-term human survival in space, and enabling a host of deep space missions to further planetary science, astronomy, and resource utilization.