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In addition to the three manned missions, there was a rescue mission on standby that had a crew of two, but could take five back down.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab#Manned_missions

How does one fit 5 astronauts in an Apollo command module? This answer suggests a second row of seats for such a flight. But where would the second row be placed? In the lower equipment bay, perhaps?

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Seats were installed in the lower equipment bay, instead of some of the usual storage lockers. A Skylab rescue mission would take a few days at most, so the usual luxuries for a 2-week Apollo mission (like being able to go to the lower equipment bay for a little personal-hygiene privacy) could be foregone. The extra seats were mounted in the reverse direction from the main crew couches:

enter image description here

The rescue CSM had the usual Apollo service module (although, as with the other Skylab CSMs, the SPS tankage was reduced because it didn't need to make the large lunar-orbital-insertion and Earth-return maneuvers, and additional RCS fuel was carried for redundancy):

enter image description here

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    $\begingroup$ One point that I always thought was interesting is that the shock absorbers on the upper seats had to be modified to have less travel. Apparently it would have been a rough landing. $\endgroup$ – prl Nov 22 '18 at 18:59

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