There are several questions and answers here about a potential advantage to launching from substantially higher altitudes, usually the answers are that while indeed there is some advantage, it is offset other questions of practicality such as infrastructure, transportation, and access to and proximity to water.

However, on Mars Olympus Mons provides an altitude advantage of 21 kilometers (something with no analog on Earth) and near Mars' equator at 19° North.

In this case, how much of an advantage would this be for a launch for a given vehicle? 1% in payload mass? 10%?

For balance, answers are welcome to point out the challenges and disadvantages as well.

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    $\begingroup$ @uhoh What are the tradeoffs? For the sake of argument, I am not considering any difficulties constructing a spaceport at that altitude. $\endgroup$ – Bob516 Nov 28 '18 at 1:05
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    $\begingroup$ @uhoh Much improved, as usual. $\endgroup$ – Bob516 Nov 28 '18 at 1:27
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    $\begingroup$ It is the absolutely worse place to try to land, so you'd have a heck of a long walk to get from your arrival gate to your departure gate. $\endgroup$ – Mark Adler Nov 28 '18 at 2:34
  • $\begingroup$ @MarkAdler in which ways; lack of atmosphere for braking, rough terrain, no good hotels nearby? $\endgroup$ – uhoh Nov 28 '18 at 7:30
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    $\begingroup$ Lack of atmosphere. $\endgroup$ – Mark Adler Nov 28 '18 at 15:19

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