What propellants have been used by lander to land on Mars surface?
Successful landers and rovers
Viking 1/2: monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide for the orbiter; hydrazine monopropellant for the lander.
Pathfinder/Sojourner: three solid retrorockets.
MER/Spirit/Opportunity: hydrazine monopropellant.
Phoenix: hydrazine monopropellant.
MSL/Curiosity: hydrazine monopropellant.
InSight: hydrazine monopropellant.
Failed landers and rovers
Due to requests in several comments, I have added this section.
Mars Polar Lander / Deep Space 2: hydrazine monopropellant for the lander. Deep Space 2 were basically fancy lawn darts dropped from the lander.
ExoMars Schiaparelli: hydrazine monopropellant.
Clearly hydrazine is the propellant of choice for modern landers. No wonder why it is central to the plot of the book/movie The Martian!
According to InSight Spacecraft Overview, the lander uses hydrazine:
The Propulsion Subsystem of the InSight Lander is identical to that flown on Phoenix – featuring a total of 20 thrusters broken down in three different groups: 1) Reaction Control System thrusters with a nominal thrust of 4.5 Newtons, 2) Trajectory Correction Thrusters operating at 22 Newtons and 3) Pulsed Landing Thrusters generating 293 Newtons of thrust for attitude control and velocity reduction during the Mars Landing Maneuver. All thrusters are fed from two central tanks containing ~65 Kilograms of usable propellant.
All thrusters use the decomposition of Hydrazine monopropellant over a metallic catalyst bed to create high-pressure gas that can be expelled through a nozzle to generate thrust.