Have astronauts ever seen asteroids or comets from space, either by eye, through a camera, or a telescope?
The crew of the International Space Station enjoyed a front seat view of the Lovejoy Comet as they flew over the Southern Hemisphere. The Expedition 30 crew captured video footage of the comet from aboard the space station as part of Crew Earth Observations. Astronaut Dan Burbank described the sight as, "the most amazing thing I have ever seen in space."
reference (December 2011)
Reference (December 2013)
The severely over-hyped Comet Kohoutek was observed from Skylab. This is a sketch from visual observation made by one of the crew.
Reference (December 1973)
December seems to be the month for observing comets from space stations
And now meteoroid (i.e. burning asteoroid):
(taken from ESA video)