I'm trying to find examples of direct earth–moon trajectories ending in inclined low lunar orbits. I've found a few classes, such as

but the all three of these are designed with free return in mind and the third is an old enough (and lightly-cited enough) source (1963) that I'm not sure whether to believe its findings.

I know that there have been other trajectories designed without free return in mind, such as Surveyor VII, whose landing site latitude indicates a deviation from the Apollo trajectories. But I'm struggling to find any documentation on how those trajectories (which also include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's trajectory) were designed.

I can't actually find much at all about inclination at lunar arrival.

So I guess what I'm looking for is an example of a noncoplanar direct transfer trajectory, ideally using patched conics or the circular restricted three-body problem approach. Or am I barking up the wrong tree? Is it easier to compute a coplanar trajectory and then use a program like GMAT or Copernicus to alter the arrival inclination? Is there a review somewhere of these topics?

Moreover, is it possible to alter insertion inclination simply by injecting slightly earlier or later? It seems like such an action would cause the conic to be slightly out of the earth–moon orbital plane.


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