Yes, every shuttle flight after STS-5 carried EMUs, because EVA repair was counted on as a level of redundancy for several critical failures (most of which never happened, but that's not the point).
(Source - Generic Shuttle Flight rules)
Here are some of the contingency EVAs:
- Stow the radiators
- Close the Payload Bay Doors
- Stow the Remote Manipulator System
- Stow the Ku-band Antenna (this one did actually happen once)
- Close the External Tank Umbilical Doors
- Repair the tile (After STS-107)
- Basically stow anything that would prevent the payload bay doors from
Here's a list from the EVA Checklist (these are generic, there could be additional flight specific ones):
I forgot about the 96 bolt EVA - that one is for if the Orbiter got stuck on the docking system! And yes, they would have had to release 96 bolts (and cut some supply tubing as well...)
The ET door one was out there too. They would have had to stuff clothes in a duffle bag and throw it through the gap between the inner and outer elevons to get a line to travel to the area on.... (this was written before the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) was flown, that would have made it a heck of a lot easier).
This graphic shows how using the OBSS would have made it easier to access the ET door area.