I am new to using radios and was wondering why do data rates matter when you use a radio to pull info from somewhere else. Also what does it mean when a satellite sends a wide band signal. Thank you for your time.
A few issues here:
You don't "pull" information with a radio. That just isn't a thing.
When transmitting, radio waves follow an inverse square law: when you double the distance, you quarter the power, which means you rapidly approach the noise floor (from cosmic radiation, solar radiation, you name it) so in order to combat noise, you need to send data more slowly. This often means longer codes indicating 1's and 0's, and generally more check digits - all adding up to lower data rate.
Check out the Wikipedia Page on error detection - it has a section on deep space telecommunications.
And Wide Band just means using a greater frequency range - which can help to increase bandwidth/data rate or alternatively lower the noise floor.
Hubble, and other satellites, are considerably closer, so can transmit data at much higher rates, including very high resolution images, video feeds, experiment results data etc.
The challenge they have is RF interference from human transmissions, so wide band transmission is used for both interference resistance and increasing data rate.