Disclaimer: I have no formal education in science. Also, I'm a dummy!
Locomotives usually feature a shield that deflects objects on a train's track.
My understanding is that since satellites gradually succumb to gravity their path is constantly changing to a lower and lower altitude relative to earth. This suggest to me that the first contact with debris that a satellite (for example, the ISS) would be likely have would be on that bottom edge.
It seems to me then, that by having an inverted cow catcher on the bottom of the station it might be possible to deflect debris toward the earth where it can be burned up on entry into the atmosphere.
The intelligent part might be that it would include a detector that would scan ahead for incoming debris and, taking into account other vulnerable satellites in the area it would adjust the angle of the cow catcher to deflect earthward.
The catcher could be coupled in a way that would allow it to absorb impact gradually by continuous springs.
The effect then would be that the satellites, particularly the ISS, of course, would pre-sweep what will be their subsequent path due to gravitation so when they descend they know that they are not in for any surprises.
The cow catcher would catch any cows who happen to be in the area, jumping over the moon. :)
Obstruction clearing device ("Cow catcher") on narrow gauge locomotive LWR6, Jokioinen Museum Railway (WikiMedia