As highlighted by the green double-arrow lines in the pictures below, the Mercury and Gemini capsules had a (roughly) cylindrical "neck" at the end of the capsule cone. If they had instead followed the outline of the red dotted lines, the spacecraft would have been a simple cone (*1), there would have been more room inside for crew and equipment, and the module could still make the same attachments fore and aft. Indeed, later designs of crew modules (Apollo command module, Constellation/Orion, Boeing Starliner, SpaceX Dragon 2) do not have a neck and are simple cones.

Why did Mercury and Gemini capsules have a neck?

Mercury capsule:

annotated Mercury capsule

Gemini capsule:

annotated Gemini capsule

(*1) Okay, a truncated cone (frustum).


1 Answer 1


Understanding of re-entry heating at the time led to that decision. Around the time that Mercury was being designed, there was a huge problem in the field of ballistic missile design (which had a sister problem in the field of spacecraft design): at hypersonic speeds the noses of ballistic missiles would melt. The original thinking at the time was that the same shape that made it so easy to launch out of the atmosphere also made it so hard to re-enter the atmosphere. So a counter-intuitive design of a blunt re-entry body with a pointed nose for launch was considered (I'm aware that this doesn't address the question yet, bear with me!). See here for the development of that idea.

OK, but that's the back of the spacecraft. What about the top, which is what you're interested in? Why was it cylindrical instead of conical? It had to do with how the heat distributed itself across the capsule's body during re-entry. Cones were proposed by some contractors (see below), and initially the conical shape was experimented with. Page 95 of this document briefly talks about this.

The understanding at the time of how to keep the spacecraft cool, given all of the other constraints it was under, led to the choice of cylinder. Below is an image showing how various parts of the spacecraft heated up during entry.

enter image description here

The difference between the Mercury and Apollo spacecraft was a ratio of diameter to height. Below are images showing the various proposed designs. Notice how tall a Mercury capsule would have to be if it were conical, relative to its diameter.

enter image description here

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    $\begingroup$ Great answer! Are the units for the numbers in your first figure degrees Fahrenheit? The "suit air" numbers would suggest so. $\endgroup$
    – DrSheldon
    Commented May 22, 2019 at 16:45
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    $\begingroup$ I would expect so but unfortunately I do not know. I've only been able to find that particular image second hand. However, 85C is unsurvivable, so I'm sure it must be F $\endgroup$ Commented May 22, 2019 at 16:46

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